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BACKGROUND: Transcervical resection of myoma or endometrium is a safe, hysteroscopic, minimally invasive procedure. However, intravasation of distension fluid is a common phenomenon during these procedures. In a previous study we observed venous gas emboli in almost every patient. The severity of hysteroscopic-derived embolization has been shown to be correlated to the amount of intravasation. In addition, paradoxical gas embolism, which is potentially dangerous, was observed in several patients. Studies have shown a reduction of intravasation by using intracervically administered vasopressin during hysteroscopy. We think that its analog, terlipressin, should have the same effect. In our previous research we observed more gaseous emboli as intravasation increased. Whether or not the insertion of intracervically administered terlipressin leads to a lower incidence and severity of gas embolism is unknown. We hypothesize that intracervically administered terlipressin leads to a reduction of intravasation with a lower incidence and severity of gas embolism. Terlipressin may be of benefit during hysteroscopic surgery. METHODS/DESIGN: Forty-eight patients (ASA 1 or 2) scheduled for transcervical resection of large, types 1-2 myoma or extensive endometrium resection will be included. In a double-blind fashion patients will be randomized 1:1 according to surgical treatment using either intracervically administered terlipressin or placebo. Transesophageal echocardiography will be used to observe and record embolic events. A pre- and post-procedure venous blood sample will be taken to calculate intravasation based on hemodilution. Our primary endpoint will be how terlipressin influences the severity of embolic events. Secondary endpoints include the effect of terlipressin on the amount of intravasation and on hemodynamic parameters. DISCUSSION: If terlipressin does indeed reduce the number of gaseous emboli and intravasation occurring during hysteroscopic surgery, it would be a simple method to minimize potential adverse events. It also allows for prolonged operating time before the threshold of intravasation is reached, thereby reducing the need for a second operation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Nederlands Trial Register (Dutch Trial Register), ID: NTR5577 . Registered retrospectively on 18 December 2015.